Intro To Dr. Mark Holtzapple

This introduction provides a brief overview of Dr. Mark Holtzapple’s education and career.  His compressor, engine, biofuel, and desalination technologies are featured, all of which are complementary.

Summary Of Solutions

This summary describes the water crisis and how it can be addressed with Advanced Vapor-Compression Desalination (AVCD) and StarDesal. These new technologies – which are being commercialized by Cascade Water Solutions – are compared to conventional desalination technologies.   Both desalination processes create concentrated salt, which has economic value. 

The Water Crisis

This overview describes the global water crisis, how water is used, and where we obtain water.  Oilfield water – which is difficult to both source and dispose – is emphasized.  The economics of water are described in detail.

Conventional Desalination

This synopsis of conventional desalination technologies describes processes that are driven both by heat and work.  A brief science interlude provides the fundamentals necessary to understand desalination technologies.  The global market for desalination technologies is described.  The energy consumption of all desalination processes are compared on an equal basis.  The problems with conventional desalination technologies can be overcome with Advanced Vapor-Compression Desalination (AVCD) being developed by Cascade Water Solutions.

Advanced Vapor-Compression Desalination

Vapor-compression desalination is a proven technology that was utilized during World War II.  To improve upon this established technology, Cascade Water Solutions is creating Advanced Vapor-Compression Desalination (AVCD), which has novel features that reduce energy consumption, increase production rates, and yield a highly concentrated salt solution.  The pilot unit is featured.  The technology, economics, advantages, and applications of a commercial unit are described in detail


The fracking revolution has created numerous opportunities in the oilfield, but also generates problems associated with sourcing, transporting, and disposing of water.   The most common disposal method is injection wells, which are causing earthquakes in Oklahoma.  Portable StarDesal units can be located at the oil well, which separates oilfield water into clean distilled water and damp salt.  The advantages of StarDesal provide an economical alternative to competing technologies.  The resulting salts can be cleaned and used in commerce.

Minerals from Salt

Both Advanced Vapor-Compression Desalination (AVCD) and StarDesal produce concentrated salts that can be used in commercial markets.  To achieve optimal value, the salts must be separated into their components, which predominantly are sodium, magnesium, and potassium chloride.  Minor amounts of lithium, uranium, molybdenum, and gold can be recovered as well.  The markets for these products are very large allowing many hundreds of plants to be constructed before markets are saturated.